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Instead, I argue that seemingly inadequate conservation practices can also be interpreted as an integral part of the management system which allows for a combination of heritage preservation and urban transformation.A multi-faceted management structure pleases international organizations and investors, while ambiguous responsibilities hinder the formation of an effective opposition against urban transformation projects in historic neighbourhoods.My interview partners were residents and workers in the historic neighbourhoods, volunteers and activists from Istanbul’s civil platforms, and academics, architects, and urban planners.I also talked to members of ICOMOS () Turkey, and the Turkish National Commission of UNESCO, and in addition to employees from different municipalities, national institutions, and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism.The establishment of a formally elaborated framework of heritage management has gained international approval.At the same time, the number of newly established institutions and regulations has created a certain degree of ambiguity at the local level, which has allowed urban transformation to take place even in protected World Heritage areas.Turkey’s heritage management system, does not oppose urban transformation, but rather it enables the realization of development projects in historic neighbourhoods.

However, both organizations’ influence has been marginalized by strong state control.In the last part, I will illustrate how urban transformation and historic preservation has been combined in a centralized management system in Istanbul.The widely accepted (re)production of heritage, and the relative powerlessness of UNESCO’s WHC on a local level, supports a heritage management system in favour of huge transformation projects.The UNESCO World Heritage (WH) label is nowadays used by different actors to promote tourist destinations and to highlight the unique character of single sites. the World Heritage Committee) has become a reference point in statements made by local activists and newspapers in Istanbul criticizing current developments at WH sites.This, however, does not indicate the growing influence of UNESCO at the local level, and associations with the famous list are often misguided (Askew 2010).

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